Individual Shots on Goal Rates Among Top MLS Scorers

By Benjamin Massey

December 28th, 2012 · No comments

In MLS over the past five seasons, the most elite scorers have been those who most consistently put a large volume of shots on target.

Earlier this month I looked at the shooting percentages of top scorers in Major League Soccer over the past five years[1]. This was a follow-up to my previous look at team shooting percentage, and to what extent it could be repeated over several seasons[2].

It’s clear that, unless assisted by penalties, it is unusual for a player to sustain a shooting percentage over 40% for a long period of time and unheard of to sustain over 50%. Unless he is a true all-time great, if he has a 40% season not counting penalties he probably won’t keep that up over his career. Likewise, anybody of any proven scoring ability who shoots below 20% in a season is probably due to rally.

My theory is that, as a rule, the most reliable scorers are the ones who shoot most: that you’re more likely to get several seasons of high production from somebody who gets a lot of shots off than from somebody who “picks his spots” or however you want to put it for a low-shot-count-high-percentage shooter. This is because a high percentage is likely to be driven by luck: the difference between 30% and 40% can be one muff by a keeper, whereas shots are more frequent and therefore more representative.

The next question is to look at how often top scorers shoot. Is it a rule that, the more you shoot, the more you score? Is there a point of diminishing returns? Are players with extreme numbers of shots on goal more likely to repeat the feat than players with extreme shooting percentages? How many shots on goal is a good number for a top scorer to maintain?

My sample of players for this post is the same in my previous one: any player who scored six goals or more in an MLS season between 2008 and 2012, of whom there were 104 in all. To quote myself:

I chose six because, in my view, it’s the lowest number for a good-but-not-elite scorer: every team will basically have a six-goal scorer and a few will have more, but when you’re getting into that seven/eight/nine goal range you’re talking about players leading a few teams in scoring. It also provides a large enough sample to be helpful without being too large to work with.

As this table is massive, it is coming after the jump.

Please note that this table is larger than my previous one; on non-widescreen monitors it will look like a hot mess. I have therefore also made the table available in a separate HTML file (opens in new window) which will hopefully appear more clearly.

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Cumulative
Name G SoG Min SoG/90 G SoG Min SoG/90 G SoG Min SoG/90 G SoG Min SoG/90 G SoG Min SoG/90 G SoG Min SoG/90
Agudelo, Juan 0 1 14 6.429 6 17 1364 1.122 3 16 1570 0.917 9 34 2948 1.038
Alvarez, Arturo 6 21 1795 1.053 5 22 1848 1.071 3 12 1210 0.893 0 1 724 0.124 14 56 5577 0.904
Angel, Juan Pablo 14 41 1955 1.887 12 37 2133 1.561 13 40 2593 1.388 10 32 2314 1.245 4 18 1004 1.614 53 168 9999 1.512
Arnaud, Davy 7 17 2019 0.758 5 17 2214 0.691 6 27 2342 1.038 0 4 1536 0.234 4 13 2765 0.423 22 78 10876 0.645
Arrieta, Jairo 9 21 1534 1.232 9 21 1534 1.232
Barrett, Chad 9 32 2172 1.326 5 25 2069 1.087 7 16 1545 0.932 7 19 1583 1.080 1 2 677 0.266 29 94 8046 1.051
Beckham, David 5 12 2248 0.480 2 9 889 0.911 2 6 466 1.159 2 9 2226 0.364 7 18 1985 0.816 18 54 7814 0.622
Bernier, Patrice 9 15 2194 0.615 9 15 2194 0.615
Blanco, Cuauhtemoc 7 26 2398 0.976 5 17 1452 1.054 12 43 3850 1.005
Boyd, Kris 7 28 1893 1.331 7 28 1893 1.331
Braun, Justin 4 18 1219 1.329 3 16 1211 1.189 9 25 2118 1.062 8 29 2055 1.270 0 5 581 0.775 24 93 7184 1.165
Bravo, Omar 9 25 2150 1.047 9 25 2150 1.047
Bruin, Will 5 23 1693 1.223 12 35 2510 1.255 17 58 4203 1.242
Buddle, Edson 15 38 2218 1.542 5 16 1255 1.147 17 43 2109 1.835 3 9 969 0.836 40 106 6551 1.456
Bunbury, Teal 5 23 1441 1.437 9 22 1744 1.135 5 16 1247 1.155 19 61 4432 1.239
Casey, Conor 11 27 1313 1.851 16 31 2087 1.337 13 28 2289 1.101 6 10 809 1.112 2 12 1156 0.934 48 108 7654 1.270
Castillo, Fabian 2 8 1355 0.531 6 19 1892 0.904 8 27 3247 0.748
Castrillon, Jaime 8 18 2417 0.670 8 18 2417 0.670
Chaves, Diego 6 14 1699 0.742 6 14 1699 0.742
Chavez, Martin 0 0 233 0.000 2 4 818 0.440 6 28 2521 1.000 3 14 1910 0.660 11 46 5482 0.755
Ching, Brian 13 29 2096 1.245 8 15 1549 0.872 7 9 1425 0.568 5 14 1242 1.014 5 15 1385 0.975 38 82 7697 0.959
Conrad, Jimmy 6 7 2700 0.233 1 4 2160 0.167 1 3 2282 0.118 1 1 180 0.500 9 15 7322 0.184
Cooper, Kenny 18 60 2622 2.059 7 29 1331 1.961 8 30 2562 1.054 18 46 2505 1.653 51 165 9020 1.646
Cristman, Adam 6 24 1300 1.662 0 2 213 0.845 2 4 708 0.508 1 2 527 0.342 0 0 69 0.000 9 32 2817 1.022
Cummings, Omar 6 27 1629 1.492 8 34 2474 1.237 14 37 2471 1.348 3 10 1686 0.534 6 28 2000 1.260 37 136 10260 1.193
Cunningham, Jeff 8 20 1698 1.060 17 38 1918 1.783 11 25 1464 1.537 2 3 591 0.457 38 86 5671 1.365
Davies, Charlie 11 19 1553 1.101 11 19 1553 1.101
Davis, Brad 3 16 1800 0.800 5 21 2207 0.856 5 23 2163 0.957 4 15 2892 0.467 8 22 2523 0.785 25 97 11585 0.754
Dawkins, Simon 6 20 1773 1.015 8 24 1847 1.169 14 44 3620 1.094
De Rosario, Dwayne 7 34 1948 1.571 11 36 2444 1.326 15 36 2226 1.456 16 44 2781 1.424 7 26 2195 1.066 56 176 11594 1.366
DeLeon, Nick 6 22 2175 0.910 6 22 2175 0.910
Donovan, Landon 20 40 2136 1.685 12 29 2152 1.213 7 20 2141 0.841 12 23 1915 1.081 9 23 2256 0.918 60 135 10600 1.146
Dube, Kheli 4 13 1252 0.935 8 24 1720 1.256 2 17 1023 1.496 0 1 114 0.789 0 0 0 nan 14 55 4109 1.205
Emilio, Luciano 11 39 2141 1.639 10 29 2070 1.261 0 1 157 0.573 21 69 4368 1.422
Espindola, Fabian 5 17 642 2.383 3 20 1511 1.191 6 15 1514 0.892 10 31 2096 1.331 9 30 2293 1.177 33 113 8056 1.262
Fernandez, Alvaro 2 3 475 0.568 9 21 1849 1.022 4 7 1863 0.338 15 31 4187 0.666
Ferreira, David 8 22 2692 0.736 8 26 2699 0.867 3 5 505 0.891 2 9 1427 0.568 21 62 7323 0.762
Findley, Robbie 6 18 1493 1.085 12 26 1751 1.336 5 14 1355 0.930 23 58 4599 1.135
Folan, Caleb 6 16 1521 0.947 6 16 1521 0.947
Gomez, Christian 3 18 1423 1.138 6 18 1612 1.005 9 36 3035 1.068
Gomez, Gabriel 6 9 1578 0.513 6 9 1578 0.513
Gordon, Alan 5 15 1314 1.027 3 15 1175 1.149 2 12 1199 0.901 5 10 739 1.218 13 25 1297 1.735 28 77 5724 1.211
Hassli, Eric 10 28 1865 1.351 5 16 1039 1.386 15 44 2904 1.364
Henry, Thierry 2 13 859 1.362 14 30 2266 1.192 15 37 2108 1.580 31 80 5233 1.376
Holden, Stu 3 15 1652 0.817 6 15 2340 0.577 9 30 3992 0.676
Huckerby, Darren 6 14 1211 1.040 3 10 1058 0.851 9 24 2269 0.952
Jaqua, Nate 4 6 901 0.599 9 16 2278 0.632 0 5 409 1.100 0 2 843 0.214 13 29 4431 0.589
Jewsbury, Jack 3 18 2548 0.636 0 13 2451 0.477 2 15 1675 0.806 7 20 2790 0.645 3 10 2765 0.325 15 76 12229 0.559
Johnson, Eddie 14 25 2120 1.061 14 25 2120 1.061
Johnson, Ryan 5 19 1535 1.114 11 35 2241 1.406 1 18 1706 0.950 3 15 2080 0.649 7 23 2769 0.748 27 110 10331 0.958
Joseph, Shalrie 1 12 2384 0.453 8 12 2228 0.485 4 19 1931 0.886 8 23 2860 0.724 3 6 2561 0.211 24 72 11964 0.542
Juninho (LAG) 2 9 2006 0.404 4 13 2556 0.458 7 19 2666 0.641 13 41 7228 0.511
Kamara, Kei 4 21 1052 1.797 6 23 2177 0.951 10 33 2418 1.228 9 29 2201 1.186 11 49 2871 1.536 40 155 10719 1.301
Keane, Robbie 2 3 275 0.982 16 43 2519 1.536 18 46 2794 1.482
Koevermans, Danny 8 17 756 2.024 9 24 1186 1.821 17 41 1942 1.900
LaBrocca, Nick 2 11 2396 0.413 2 17 2434 0.629 1 9 2177 0.372 8 25 3058 0.736 2 14 2293 0.549 15 76 12358 0.553
Larentowicz, Jeff 4 12 2437 0.443 1 17 2438 0.628 4 13 2617 0.447 7 18 3051 0.531 3 16 2779 0.518 19 76 13322 0.513
Le Toux, Sebastien 1 12 1457 0.741 14 48 2520 1.714 11 30 3060 0.882 5 16 2552 0.564 31 106 9589 0.995
Lekic, Rajko 6 17 1852 0.826 6 17 1852 0.826
Lenhart, Steven 4 5 278 1.619 3 13 1065 1.099 6 21 1640 1.152 5 14 1163 1.083 10 33 1623 1.830 28 86 5769 1.342
Lillingston, Eduardo 8 18 1263 1.283 0 0 0 nan 8 18 1263 1.283
Lindpere, Joel 3 13 2567 1.152 7 22 3048 0.650 5 12 2385 0.453 15 47 8000 0.529
Lopez, Claudio 6 23 2265 0.914 7 34 2501 1.224 0 4 200 1.800 13 61 4966 1.106
Maicon Santos 1 10 670 1.343 5 16 1185 1.215 8 25 1974 1.140 7 19 1470 1.163 21 70 5299 1.189
Mattocks, Darren 7 16 1300 1.108 7 16 1300 1.108
McBride, Brian 5 12 932 1.159 7 22 1963 1.009 6 18 1604 1.010 18 52 4499 1.040
McInerney, Jack 3 3 350 0.771 1 6 558 0.968 8 19 1630 1.049 12 28 2538 0.993
Mendoza, Andres 2 2 204 0.882 13 31 2022 1.380 15 33 2226 1.334
Montero, Fredy 12 32 2217 1.299 10 34 2353 1.300 12 42 2304 1.641 13 46 2576 1.607 47 154 9450 1.467
Morales, Javier 6 23 2511 0.824 1 16 2076 0.694 7 21 2163 0.874 2 5 785 0.573 3 12 2119 0.510 19 77 9654 0.718
Moreno, Alejandro 9 19 2428 0.704 4 12 1605 0.673 2 8 1974 0.365 5 12 2016 0.536 2 5 1520 0.296 22 56 9543 0.528
Moreno, Jaime 10 19 1861 0.919 9 14 1240 1.016 2 8 905 0.796 21 41 4006 0.921
Movsisyan, Yura 7 33 1229 2.417 8 29 1731 1.508 15 62 2960 1.885
Mwanga, Danny 7 14 1461 0.862 5 20 1535 1.173 3 7 1198 0.526 15 41 4194 0.880
Nagbe, Darlington 2 10 1651 0.545 6 16 2777 0.519 8 26 4428 0.528
Nyassi, Sanna 0 1 305 0.295 2 12 1241 0.870 5 24 1586 1.362 6 31 1716 1.626 13 68 4848 1.262
Oduro, Dominic 5 16 992 1.452 1 8 835 0.862 5 19 1711 0.999 12 40 2633 1.367 6 25 1823 1.234 29 108 7994 1.216
Padilla, Jesus 1 2 712 0.253 6 15 1378 0.980 7 17 2090 0.732
Pajoy, Lionard 8 20 2475 0.727 8 20 2475 0.727
Pappa, Marco 0 4 217 1.659 5 29 2314 1.128 7 26 1961 1.193 8 41 2324 1.588 6 21 1615 1.170 26 121 8431 1.292
Perez, Blas 9 23 1705 1.214 9 23 1705 1.214
Perlaza, Jorge 6 12 2152 0.502 0 2 562 0.320 6 14 2714 0.464
Perovic, Marko 6 21 2058 0.918 1 3 262 1.031 7 24 2320 0.931
Pontius, Chris 4 23 2113 0.980 2 6 1189 0.454 7 20 2114 0.851 12 29 2339 1.116 25 78 7755 0.905
Ralston, Steve 8 13 1715 0.682 7 11 1543 0.642 0 0 0 nan 15 24 3258 0.663
Renteria, Emilio 0 1 177 0.508 5 15 857 1.575 8 17 1159 1.320 3 14 1542 0.817 16 47 3735 1.133
Richards, Dane 3 11 1553 0.637 3 6 1988 0.272 5 14 2008 0.627 7 21 2333 0.810 4 11 2402 0.412 22 63 10284 0.551
Rodgers, Luke 9 20 1560 1.154 9 20 1560 1.154
Rogers, Robbie 6 33 2334 1.272 1 13 1709 0.685 1 9 1547 0.524 2 11 2218 0.446 10 66 7808 0.761
Rolfe, Chris 9 24 1960 1.102 6 26 1854 1.262 8 20 1760 1.023 23 70 5574 1.130
Ruiz, Carlos 1 6 671 0.805 6 14 1144 1.101 7 20 1815 0.992
Saborio, Alvaro 12 22 1988 0.996 11 24 1928 1.120 17 40 2390 1.506 40 86 6306 1.227
Salihi, Hamdi 6 17 945 1.619 6 17 945 1.619
Sanvezzo, Camilo 12 37 2484 1.341 5 24 1719 1.257 17 61 4203 1.306
Sapong, C.J. 5 25 2096 1.073 9 24 2210 0.977 14 49 4306 1.024
Schelotto, Guillermo Barros 7 27 2216 1.097 12 25 1816 1.239 9 27 2545 0.955 28 79 6577 1.081
Sene, Saer 11 35 1934 1.629 11 35 1934 1.629
Shea, Brek 0 0 17 0.000 0 6 727 0.743 5 19 1797 0.952 11 23 2647 0.782 3 20 1747 1.030 19 68 6935 0.882
Twellman, Taylor 8 22 1211 1.635 2 4 109 3.303 0 0 0 nan 10 26 1320 1.773
van den Bergh, Dave 7 19 2228 0.768 3 14 2446 0.515 10 33 4674 0.635
Wolff, Josh 3 6 949 0.569 11 30 2348 1.150 2 12 1549 0.697 5 17 1924 0.795 0 2 223 0.807 21 67 6993 0.862
Wondolowski, Chris 0 0 125 0.000 5 13 1141 1.025 18 36 2308 1.404 16 52 2672 1.751 27 55 2813 1.760 66 156 9059 1.550
Zakuani, Steve 4 21 1993 0.948 10 21 2285 0.827 2 5 453 0.993 1 7 320 1.969 17 54 5051 0.962
Cumulative SoG/90 1.074 0.977 0.957 0.959 0.978

This table, as well as the one on the separate page, is sortable: click on a column header to sort by it. A glance will suffice to show that most of the best scorers shoot more.

The table above lists all players with at least one six-goal season, but when I speak below I will generally be restricting the players by the number of minutes they played. This is because rate statistics such as shots on goal per 90 minutes are useless unless they’re accompanied by a reasonable number of minutes; the fewer minutes played, the less meaningful the rate. Vancouver’s Long Tan had 3.21 SoG/90 this past season with the Whitecaps; wow! But he only played 28 minutes before being traded to DC. Flip the coin around, and of course Omar Salgado’s 0.226 SoG/90 doesn’t mean he’s a terrible attacker; he played a mere 398 minutes then he got hurt.

Of the 71 players on this list with at least 3,000 minutes (generally requiring two seasons as a regular), seven of the top ten scorers in goals per 90 minutes have at least 1.25 shots on goal per 90 minutes*. The three exceptions, Alvaro Saborio, Landon Donovan, and Jaime Moreno, were all helped by scoring penalties: Saborio was 8/8, Moreno was 11/12 (more than half his goals came from the spot), and Donovan was 16/17.

There is an strong correlation among these top scorers with more than 3,000 minutes for goals to increase with shots on target. For your satisfaction, below is a graph of cumulative shots on goal per 90 minutes, with a line of best fit, against cumulative goals for 90 minutes for the players listed above with more than 3,000 total minutes.

goalsper90sogper90topscorers3000minutes

As shots on goal increase, goals increase. Many top scorers with relatively few shots are players like Donovan, Moreno, or Steve Ralston, who scored a disproportionate number of penalties. Others are close to the 3,000 minute mark and provide unsettlingly small sample sizes compared to 9,000-minute men like Angel, De Rosario, Montero, Cooper, and other truly established talents. There are also at-least-part-time midfielders on the list, such as Dominic Oduro, Jack Jewsbury, and Marco Pappa, who score on a relatively small proportion of their shots. But that’s what you would expect; a midfielder will spend less time in prime scoring position than a forward even if he shoots frequently.

Which forwards have high shooting rates but relatively low goal rates? Camilo Sanvezzo, with 1.306 SoG/90 and 0.364 G/90, is one, but he has played only 4,203 MLS minutes and his numbers were kneecapped by a lousy 2012 season; he’s also spent many of those minutes out at left wing. Smart pundits will tip Camilo to recover. Kei Kamara, with 1.301 SoG/90 and 0.336 G/90, and Sanna Nyassi with 1.262 SoG/90 and 0.241 G/90, also stand out. But Nyassi plays wide even more frequently than Camilo and if you were to draw up the theoretical epitome of a low-percentage scorer it would be these two: quick enough to beat defenders but not skilled enough to get in prime positions, shoot from everywhere even when you wish they wouldn’t, and still manage respectable scoring numbers. Nyassi and Kamara are the only 3,000-minute players who can even loosely be called a forward with an SoG/90 over 1.1 (the top 30 in our sample) and a G/90 below 0.3 (the bottom half).

“Just shoot more” is not magic; there is such a thing as a wasteful shot on target. You can see Nyassi on the graph: he is the first big spike above 1.2 (the next spike is Oduro, and we can argue until the cows come home about whether he counts as a forward). The point at which you’re shooting in the top 15 of 70 but scoring in the bottom 25 of 70 is the point at which you should arguably be more selective. But even there, at the very epitome of “if any top scorer is shooting wastefully it’s that guy,” Nyassi’s goals per 90 puts journeyman scrubs like Alejandro Moreno and Ryan Johnson in the shade. We come to the question of how many shots Nyassi would be taking from his teammates and how many can that possibly be?

When a player is in the top 25 in MLS shots on goal he will tend to be at least a six-goal man. Exceptions are usually midfielders (2011 Khari Stephenson and Eddie Gaven, 2010 Brad Davis, 2009 Atiba Harris, and many more) or forwards who have scored in this league but were shit out of luck that season (2012 Camilo, 2009 Chad Barrett and Chris Pontius, and though his salad days fall outside our sample 2008 Scott Sealy). No MLS forward both consistently posted big shot numbers and never got a season in the six-goal club since 2008. Macoumba Kandji, for example, had a free-shooting 2009 (1.233 SoG/90), managed only four goals, but has also never since come within range of 1.00 SoG/90.

So if players who shoot on target more tend to score more, the logical implication is that a player who can consistently get shots on target should be considered a good scoring bet, even if they have a season or two where their goal total is down. Anybody who wrote off Thierry Henry after his 2010 season with 0.210 G/90, for example, would be feeling pretty stupid. 2008 Brad Davis was nobody’s idea of a goalscorer from midfield, but his rates stayed reasonable and suddenly he’s a consistent offensive threat when healthy and attacking. Omar Cummings’s “renaissance” after a tough 2011 was just his shooting rate returning to normal (don’t be surprised if Justin Braun pulls the same trick in 2013), and on 6 or 7 from Brek Shea if he continues his 2012 pace, as his shooting rates are trending the right way even if his percentages have fluctuated. On the flip side, Alejandro Moreno, Nate Jaqua, and Danny Mwanga had big seasons they couldn’t repeat; of course not! Their shot rates were never high enough (although Mwanga, young and developing, might get there).

When I discussed shooting percentage, I observed that it was very rare for players to repeat extremely high percentages. To quote myself:

But plenty of players have shot above [Brian] Ching’s 46.34% once. In the past five seasons, seventeen players on twenty-one occasions have shot at least 50% and scored more than six goals in a year. Of the 17 from 2008 to 2011 only five ever repeated it. Of those five, only Brian Ching did it without scoring a disproportionate number of penalties, and Ching’s 2010 season was weird even for him (he scored seven goals on nine shots, which is just way out of whack even with his career percentage).

In short: an average of over four players a season will shoot at that level. He will seldom do it again. If he does, he was almost certainly opportunistic with his penalties. There is one exception to this rule in the past five years, and he had the benefit of a small sample size in his second successful season.

The highest shot rate in the 3,000 minute club belongs to Kenny Cooper with 1.646 SoG/90. If we do what we did with Ching and look for players who just beat the champion once in a single season (say over 1.7 SoG/90), we come up with seven players who, on eight occasions, managed to cross the 1.7 mark (at least 1,500 minutes): 2008 Kenny Cooper and Juan Pablo Angel, 2009 Jeff Cunningham, 2010 Edson Buddle and Sebastien Le Toux, 2011 Chris Wondolowski, 2012 Stephen Lenhart and Chris Wondolowski (again).

When we looked at players who had big scoring seasons driven by high shooting percentages, there were names nobody would, in retrospect, consider elite snipers: Shalrie Joseph, Jimmy Conrad, Nate Jaqua, Jorge Perlaza, Patrice Bernier, and that’s without counting those who couldn’t do anything in open play but just banged in penalties like Jaime Moreno or Steve Ralston. Only Brian Ching stood out as a consistent high-percentage shooter. But of our seven players with great shooting seasons, six are consistently high-volume shooters. The exception is Le Toux, and Whitecaps fans will argue to the death about whether he has been misused.

Cooper, Wondolowski, and Angel are the three top-shooting players over the five-year sample in our 3,000 minute club. Buddle is fifth, Cunningham is ninth, and Lenhart is tenth; plus, as the youngest player on the list, Lenhart will naturally be a developing talent compared to the other veterans.

While Wondolowski is the only player of the seven to repeat such a high-shooting-rate season, Cooper has come damned close twice (missing out in 2010 because of inadequate minutes and in 2012 by 0.05 SoG/90), Buddle was over 1.5 SoG/90 in his only other 1,500-minute season, and Angel has spent our five-year sample aging out of his prime while still producing high numbers.

In short: elite shooting is strongly linked to elite scoring. There are next-to-no examples of MLS forwards who consistently shoot at an elite level without scoring at one, although there are a very few forwards whose spectacular volume of shots may not be worth their still-quite-high volume of goals. Players who have high SoG/90 seasons in a significant number of minutes are likely to remain elite scorers; the same cannot be said of players with high shooting percentage seasons.


* — Chris Wondolowski (1.55 SoG/90, 0.656 G/90), Jeff Cunningham (1.365 SoG/90, 0.603 G/90), Alvaro Saborio (1.227 SoG/90, 0.571 G/90), Conor Casey (1.27 SoG/90, 0.564 G/90), Edson Buddle (1.456 SoG/90, 0.550/90), Thierry Henry (1.376 SoG/90, 0.533 G/90), Landon Donovan (1.146 SoG/90, 0.509 G/90), Kenny Cooper (1.646 SoG/90, 0.509 G/90), Juan Pablo Angel (1.512 SoG/90, 0.477 G/90), Jaime Moreno (0.921 SoG/90, 0.472 G/90).

[1] — Massey, Benjamin. “Individual Shooting Percentages Among Top MLS Scorers.” Maple Leaf Forever!, December 7, 2012. Accessed December 27, 2012. http://www.maple-leaf-forever.com/2012/12/07/individual-shooting-percentages-among-top-mls-scorers/.

[2] — Massey, Benjamin. “Repeatability of Shooting Percentage in MLS.” Maple Leaf Forever!, November 26, 2012. Accessed December 27, 2012. http://www.maple-leaf-forever.com/2012/11/26/repeatability-of-shooting-percentage-in-mls/.

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